Mong ethnic group
Mong ethnic group includes about 194,483 people. They have their own tradition of cultivation in stone fields such as rice, corn and other crops. Production of craft reaches a high level as weaving, knitting, wood working, forge. Traditional costume of women is very unique. A complete set includes skirt, blouse, coat sawing over chest with brassiere, waist, wrapped head scarf and legging. The skirt often is conical and splayed pleat. Maybe it is a tube skirt for wearing on the sides.
Traditional house is built from soil with three rooms. Main and side doors always open to the inside. Culture of Mong ethnic is a very rich treasure with the customs, rituals and believes. Each family has an own way to worship ancestors. There are several major ceremonies as worshiping door ghost, great ghost with a diversity of content, decoration, arrangement of a ceremonial place. It is much diversified and complex.
Literature and art of Mong ethnic group express the sense of community; issues of nature, society and history. Prominent among those is love melodies expressed in pan, flute… Decoration in the skirt contains colorfully butterflies, snakes, flowers. All of them are invaluable assets of Mong ethnic people and preserved from generation to another.
Dao ethnic group
Dao people live in Ha Giang about 95,959 people. They work in agriculture on terraced fields. They also have own crafts as making jewelry, embroidering flower on a fabric by beeswax and so on. Local people mainly live in houses of stilts nearby river or stream.
Their costume has many traditional elements such as color pattern. Spiritual culture is very complex expressing conception and spiritual consciousness of Dao ethnic community. Worship and magic are their own aspects with deep culture. Literature includes myths, tales, poems, folk stories, which reflects the community’s perception of the universe, human and worldview.
Tay ethnic group
They live near mountainside or riverside and cultivate rice, corn… Family crafts increasingly develop like knitting, manufacturing farm equipment, furniture and ceramic. They mainly weave blankets, towels with colorful pattern.
They live in houses on stilts. Traditional costume is indigo, raven beak towel, silver rings. Spiritual culture is much diversified with unique rituals and sacrificial offerings related to production and human life circle, wedding, funeral and new home. Folklore is a treasure of all kinds of myth, tale and poem.
Nung ethnic group
They live primarily in water husbandry with high farming technique. Ranching is quite developed. Their own crafts are forging, casting, basketry, carpentry, making paper, especially the weaving.
Nung people often live in the valley near river or stream. They live in large houses on stilts. In each house, they worship their own ancestors in main room. Their costume is dyed indigo. Nung ethnic group does not hold anniversary of death, instead, they will make birthday for people over fifty years. Most famous folklore is Sli melody that is the way of love between young men and women.
Giay ethnic group
They mainly live with agriculture. Main crafts are weaving and knitting. Their costume is very simple with a few patterns. Architecture of Giay ethnic is house on stilts, worship room is the middle. When someone dies, family must take a funeral. Their folklore is very plentiful with poem, melody, proverb, idiom… Their life is very happy and spiritual.
La Chi ethnic group
This ethnic group only includes over 10 thousand of people. They mainly cultivate rice, corn, potato… They are very good at cultivation in terraced fields. Their village is located on high mountainside. Traditional costume of La Chi ethnic is simple with indigo color. Their folklore is very rich with stories about resources of human, ethnic, the sun, and paddy. In each festival, there are many folk games such as throwing ball through the ring, swinging, and especially singing “Ni ca”.
The above-mentioned things are just a small part of culture of six popular ethnic groups in Ha Giang. They still have many unique traditions to learn, research and explore. Other ethnic groups such as Pu Peo, Lolo, Phu La… also have own culture and spiritual life to make Ha Giang province more diversified, beautiful and colorful.